Government of Orissa is implementing use of advance technologies for taking initiative on several administrative reforms activities for last few years. One of the initiatives is development of database and codification of all administrative units i.e. village/ Panchayat /Revenue Inspector Circle/ Tehsils/ Thana/ Block/ Sub-Division/ District etc. Codification of administrative units was taken up not just to develop a GIS database i.e. spatial entity and attribute code but for its effective use by all the departments of the state for all types of development activities. The hierarchical coding system was not suitable as the state department adopts a three-tier system. Panchayati Raj and Rural Development Department follow a system, which classifies State into District/ Sub-Division/ Block/ Gram Panchayat/ Vllage. The Revenue Department and other utility departments follow District/Sub-Division/Tehsil/RI Circle/Village. The Home Department adopted system follows District/Sub-Division/Thana/Village. Therefore, the coding system was designed on the basis of independent non-intelligent system having each category as an independent table with codes for all the units of the state. Relational tables are defined for effective use by each of the three categories of users. Map databases are also developed for each unit. The map database i.e. spatial entities and corresponding attribute code for each type of administrative unit was done in ARCMAP environment and relational datasets are defined for effective use by any department to adopt their choice of code generation. This GIS base coding and database generation of administrative units is unique and plays an important role in the process of decision making particularly to bring transparency in administration. The database will be operationalised by General Administration Department for mandatory use by each department in generating datasets relating to several central and state sponsored development activities continuing at present in social infrastructure development sector.
Government of Orissa is implementing use of advance technologies for taking initiative on several administrative reforms activities for last few years under OMGI programme. OMGI stands for Orissa Modernizing Government Initiatives. It represents a range of change and development plans that aim at improving the delivery of public services across different Departments. It also aims at bringing about greater efficiency in the utilization of available resources by the adoption of modern tools of management and leveraging information and communication technology. The basic purpose is to stimulate, refine and concretize good ideas for improvement into practicable solutions and provide the necessary implementation support so that the standard of governance is upgraded over time. The thrust areas are:
· Human Resources Management Information System
· Best Practices
· Transparency and Accountability
· Civil Service Census
· Litigation management
· Other Activities
Under the Transparency and Accountability Programme, the following broad objectives are framed: “A pilot scheme involving pairs of nine districts and nine Departments have been undertaken for modernizing the management of database by the application of information and communication technology for improving the planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the programmes of the Departments. A part of the database may be held in the public domain to facilitate the compliance with the norms of the Right to Information Act and to enhance transparency. The database may contain the details of the functionaries involved in the programmes, the estimated cost, the expected time of completion, the details of beneficiaries, location, present status, etc. of the programmes. Common database such as details of Gram Panchayats, Blocks, Police Stations, Tehsils, and Districts may also be developed along with the digitization of their maps. Application of GIS tool for the watershed and road development programmes may be considered. At the Gram Panchayat level, information on the names of grass root level Government functionaries such as the VAWs, VLWs, ANMs, Anganwadi workers, teachers, etc. will be kept for display to the public, along with the details of their remuneration paid by the Government.”
One of the initiatives is development of database and codification of all administrative units i.e. village/ Gram Panchayat/ Revenue Inspector Circle/ Tehsils/ Thana/ Block/ Sub-Division/ District etc. Codification of administrative units was taken up not just to develop a GIS database i.e. spatial entity and attribute code but for its effective use by all the departments of the state for all types of development activities.
Aim and Objective
The aim of the project is to achieve the following.
· To have a locational code for each type of administrative units i.e. village, Gram Panchayat, Block, RI circles, Tehsils, Police station/ Thana, Sub-division and Districts.
· The codes must be unique and can be used by all types of users (at any hierarchy level i.e. State/District/Block/ Tehsil/ Thana etc.) for administrative and development planning purposes and also for monitoring and evaluation activities.
· The codes pertaining to each type of administrative units should be linked to its spatial entity in GIS environment to know its geographical location and any type of attribute data can be linked to it for Decision Support Scenario creation.
· The system should have options for use by all the Government departments, public sector units and common people.
The objectives framed to commence the project in a methodological and systematic manner are the following.
· To generate the spatial and attribute database of administrative units using GIS
· To standardize individual codes of administrative units along with its nomenclature and hierarchy
· To generate relation tables of administrative units to create codes for various departments as per their hierarchy and requirement
· To generate a web enabled database for data dissemination, interoperability and database creation by various departments
· To use the database for various activities under transparency and accountability programme of Government of Orissa
The Framework for coding of Administrative units
The adopted hierarchical system of administrative divisions and its use in the state by different departments are illustrated in map.
This project standardizes the administrative units of the state for the first time along with database in GIS format. For effective decision making the database will of immense use to bring transparency. Further the available social infrastructure database integrated with the locational database and geographical positions in form of maps can be used in efficient manner for planning and management of infrastructure, resources, manpower deployment and enforcement activities.